Writing Assignment #1: Essay on Technology and Society
北美论文essay代写 Research and discuss the arguments for and against different positions on the debate (there may be more than just two).
Drafts, Due Dates, Lengths, File Format
- Topic Proposal (approx. 300 words). Due via email to your TA by Friday, 5:00pm (PST), of Week 2. Please also submit to CCLE.
- First draft: approximately 1500 words (not including the list of references); due in discussion section Week 4; also upload to Turnitin via the link on CCLE. Please note that the draft must include correct citations of sources and a complete list of references (see below for instructions regarding CSE Name-Year style) for all works cited in the draft.
- Final version: 2500 words or more (not including the list of references); due in discussion section Week 6; also upload to Turnitin via the link on CCLE.
- File Format: Please compose ALL your drafts using Google Docs only. This will make it easier to share your files with others for peer review and for your TA to make comments.
Picking a Topic and Narrowing Your Focus 北美论文essay代写
Your task is to write a paper exploring the broader societal issues surrounding a technology topic. Choose one of the following topic areas:
- Artificial intelligence and robotics
- Drought mitigation technologies
- Election technologies
- Environmental pollution and energy technologies
- Gig Economy Technologies
- Global warming mitigation technologies
- Medical technologies and Bioengineering
- Space exploration
- Surveillance technologies
- Transportation technologies
Please note that these are broad topic areas, not topics in themselves.Depending on the topic area you are interested in, you will need to carefully narrow the focus of your investigation to something manageable. For example, there are countless possible issues related to artificial intelligence. Do you want to focus on the prospect of artificial intelligence wiping out humanity, as Elon Musk believes is a real threat? 北美论文essay代写
Or do you want to focus on how we will deal with the issues of rights for artificial intelligences? (Think, for example, about how we will legally and ethically treat robots that might meet the criteria for sentience.) Or do you want to focus on issues surrounding how to program driverless cars or autonomous weapons to make choices in ethically complicated situations? The more clearly defined and narrow your focus, the more likely your paper is to get off to a strong start.
As part of narrowing the focus of your paper, look for a specific debate within your topic. Research and discuss the arguments for and against different positions on the debate (there may be more than just two). Briefly summarize these in your proposal. Ultimately, your goal with the paper is to make an argument yourself about how society should proceed. In the proposal, discuss what argument(s) you would like to make in your essay. Please keep in mind that your argument(s) might change as you do your research and writing; in fact, changing your point of view is a good sign that you’ve learned something new.
The paper should be aimed at an audience with science/engineering competency. That said, it is not a technical paper such as might be found in an engineering academic journal. To understand your paper, a reader should not need highly specialized training in a particular discipline of science or engineering. However, you can assume that the reader does have science or engineering experience, though perhaps in an area completely different from the one addressed by the paper.
Here is a general outline that you should adapt to the individual needs of your topic. Note that some of these sections may overlap.
1.Introduction and problem statement.Open by defining the topic you’re addressing and the debate about the topic. What kinds of social questions are being asked or should be asked about this technology you’re discussing? For example, what are the ethical and legal issues raised by this technology? Should there be governmental regulation of this technology or not? What kind? Why?
2.Draw on your research to provide background information about the topic so that your audience can better understand it. What ethical, legal, and/or environmental debate(s) are currently taking place surrounding this technology?
3.The Technology.What is the state of the technology now? What promise does it offer? What are its limitations? What problem(s) regarding the technology are you going to focus on? Why? What are the likely consequences of failing to address the problem(s)? How might such problem(s) be overcome?
4.Ethical and Societal Issues. Describe how the technology raises issues of ethical and/or societal concern. Which groups are affected in which ways? What conflicts among different groups exist? 北美论文essay代写
5.Previously attempted or proposed solutions.Draw on your research to discuss what has been tried in the past (or has been proposed) to address the problem(s). Have there been technological attempts to solve any problems? Have policies to address the problem(s) been adopted by governments or companies? Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of these attempts/proposals.
6.What specific action or actions should be taken (by governments, companies, and/or engineers) to help resolve the problem(s)?
Please note that the paper should not simply be a recitation of the relevant facts. Rather, the paper should first frame the issue by describing the factual background and then go beyond that to provide original analysis and identify and explain specific recommended solutions that would help address the problem(s) discussed.
Some Other Possible Questions to Consider
- What are some of the possible intended and unintended effects of this technology?
- How do the unintended effects affect users of this technology?
- How do the unintended effects affect non-users of this technology?
- Do the benefits of the intended effects outweigh the unintended effects?
- What is the role that engineers played in the development of this technology? What ethical responsibilities do those engineers have and why?
- How might engineers eliminate (or decrease) the unintended effects or solve problems related to these effects and promote the more desirable effects?
As you start your research, you may want to aim for at least six (6) really good sources as your foundation. Ultimately, quality of sources is more important than quantity. You should use respected, authoritative sources such as (but not limited to) major news and journalistic sites, respected discipline-specific publications (e.g., IEEE Spectrum), peer-reviewed scientific or technical journals, government reports, etc. Here’s a short list of some examples of reliable general audience sources:
The New Yorker
New York Times
The Washington Post 北美论文essay代写
New York Times Magazine
These kinds of publications do extensive analysis and discussion of issues rather than simply report news. These are just a few examples; they represent the caliber of publication that you should be using. You can access all of the above (and thousands of others, of course) directly online, but for older articles and more specialized sources the best bet is to use one of the many databases available through the UCLA library website. Also, UCLA librarians can help you find the best studies and articles for your needs. Feel free to ask them for help!
You should not use blogs unless you can establish that the blog is widely accepted as authoritative (e.g. something written by an expert in the relevant field). You also should not use most regular news sources (like CNN.com or CBSnews.com or small-town newspapers) or Wikipedia unless it’s just as a starting point to find better material. Just remember: your research should be primarily through UCLA library resources; it should not be a collection of random Google hits.
Citations and List of References
Correct documentation style is an essential component of excellent student work. All citations within the text of your paper (in-text citations) and the list of all sources cited at the end of your paper should be documented using the CSE (Council of Science Editors) Name-Year system. Please note that there are actually three different CSE systems: 1) Citation-Sequence, 2) Citation-Name system, and 3) Name-Year System.
You should use the Name-Year system as this is the most similar to the other widely used citation systems. There are numerous guides to this documentation system online. We recommend this guide from the Writing Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison: https://writing.wisc.edu/handbook/documentation/doccse/nameyear/
McGill University offers another excellent CSE Citation Style guide that is downloadable as a PDF:https://www.mcgill.ca/library/files/library/cse-name-year-citation-style-guide.pdf 北美论文essay代写
Like many other citation styles, the CSE Name-Year system requires you to use parenthetical citations (author’s name/s and year of publication) at the end of sentences and paragraphs that quote, summarize, paraphrase, or otherwise use information from any source. You should also, where possible, use what is called a “signal phrase” to cite essential information about the source(s) in the lead-up to using research material. For example:
According to a recent Harvard study of civilian deaths and injuries caused by drone-use in warfare, [blah blah blah…] (Henderson et al. 2017).
A U.S. Department of Transportation report details the injuries caused by driverless cars: [blah blah blah…] (US DOT 2018).
At the end of your paper, include a complete list of References (it should be titled “References”) which should list only those sources you’ve actually cited in your paper. To help you format this correctly, you can use an online tool such as “Cite This for Me” (https://www.citethisforme.com/council-of-science-editors-author-date/source-type).
Please note that ALL DRAFTS (not just the final draft) MUST have all citations and a list of references done correctly. This is to help you keep track of where your information is coming from and also to help your TA identify if there are any problems with the sources of your research.